A REVIEW ARTICLE ON NON-GENETIC FACTORS AFFECTING REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN SWINE
A.Khulal, Prativa Sharma, S.P.Sharma, A.khulal
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This review studies several factors affecting the reproductive performance of swine chiefly focusing on sow-related factors, which have significant economic importance. A sow’s productivity is determined by different reproductive attributes, including litter size, litter weight at weaning, farrowing rate, the return of oestrus, and many more. The increase in number of pigs born alive and weaned piglets per sow is an aim for swine husbandry.Various factors such as parity, housing, feed, gestation length, season, and temperature are considered in this paper. Sows of differing parities have performed differently.The performance was influenced by various feeding systems, comfort, spacing, aggressiveness, and disease transmission in the housing system. Feeding intake and nutrition uptake are directly connected with milk secretion as well as other traits. Season and temperature are correlated with feeding intake, time of puberty, hormonal production, and seasonal infertility.Scientists are globally working for productive breeds. However, the rearing of swine will necessitate the consideration of different non-genetic factors of their reproduction from an economicpoint of view.The goal of this study is to understand non-genetic factors that affect sow reproduction and to advise swine farmers on how to create a better environment for swine to improve productivity.