FARMER’S KNOWLEDGE ON ANTI-MICROBIAL RESISTANCE, THEIR PRACTISE OF ANTIMICROBIALS USAGE AND BIOSECURITY STATUS OF POULTRY FARMS IN KATHMANDU VALLEY AND CHITWAN DISTRICT, NEPAL
Sushan Dhakal, Tulsi Ram Gompo
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The poultry industry has transformed into one of the vibrant economic activities in Nepal, contributing to almost 4% of the national GDP. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the poultry farmers of Kathmandu valley and Chitwan district to assess the knowledge of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among the farmers; their practice of antimicrobial use in poultry productions and the biosecurity status of their poultry farms. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview a total of 112 respondents, 56 each from the study sites. Nineteen percent (11/56) of the farmers from the Kathmandu valley and 16% (9/56) of that of Chitwan district knew about the antimicrobial resistance (AMR). About 53.6% (30/56) of farmers from Kathmandu valley and 60.7% (34/56) from Chitwan district followed the drug’s withdrawal period. About 33.9% (19/56) of the farmers of Kathmandu valley and 41.1% (23/56) of Chitwan could tell the names of antibiotics they used in their farms. Doxycycline (25.9%, 29/112) was the most used antibiotic followed by Tylosin (21.5%, 24/112), Colistin (18.75%, 21/112), Ciprofloxacin (13.4%, 15/112) and Neomycin (12.5%, 14/112) in both districts. On average of 41.05% (46/112) farmers knew about the harmful effects of drug residues present in the poultry products. 69.6% (39/56) of poultry farms in Kathmandu valley 53.6% (30/56) of Chitwan district had fences. All the farmers of both districts had separate boots for their farms (100%). 8.9% (5/56) of farms in Chitwan district and 16.1% (9/56) of farms in Kathmandu valley disinfected vehicles entering the farms. Nearly 53.6% (30/56) of the farms in Kathmandu valley and 46.4% (26/56) in Chitwan were in close contact with wild birds. Identifying the critical gaps in knowledge and practice of antimicrobials and improving the farms’ biosecurity status could address the issues of AMR in poultry. We suggest a reduction of antimicrobials in the poultry production by adopting alternative measures.